It might sound weird but stone washing is the most common technique in jeans washing. It can also be referred to as enzyme wash. Due to its unique technique the jeans get an antique look as time passes. Like, an old jean is famous for the white and blue texture that appears on warp and weft of garment.
According to Levi Strrauss was introduced in the early 1950’s by his employee Donald Freeland and at the same time credit is even given to Claude Blankiet in 1970’s.. In this method, freshly dyed jeans are loaded into large washing machines and tumbled with stones. Adding pumice stones gives the additional effect of a faded or worn look. The pumice abrades the surface of the jeans like sandpaper, removing some dye particles from the surfaces of the yarn.
As we know every method has some pros and cons, similarly with stonewash technique The intensity of the abrasion process is difficult to control. Small will not give the desired look. Too much can damage the fabric, mostly at the hems and waistbands. The effect in a load of jeans is never consistent, with a noteworthy percentage always getting bust by too much abrasion. The process is also non-selective. Everything in the washing machines gets abraded, including the metal buttons and rivets on the jeans as well as the drum of the washing machine. This significantly reduces the quality of the products and the life of the equipment, and increases production expenses.
Environmental authorities have also created pressure on the textile industry to limit waste in water, disposing of pumice and control pollution by wastewater treatment. A process known as “Bio-stoning” was introduced in Europe in the early 1990s and then swiftly adopted in the rest of the globe. Biostoning is by far the most economical and environmentally friendly way to treat denim.
The common steps inculcated in stone washing are
Stoning and/or Bio-stoning
The additional applications apart this are Anti Back staining, fading effect, potassium permanganate, temperature, etc.
This was an overview about the stone washing technique of jeans.